The human digestive system works by breaking up all the food we eat into basic elements called Glucose. Be it carbohydrates, fats or proteins, when energy is used for consumption, it should be in the form of Glucose. The cells in the body require a hormone called Insulin to take in this Glucose and use it as a source of energy. Insulin is produced by Pancreas (Beta cells of Pancreas) of the digestive system.
The different types of diabetes are:
Type 1 - This is also insulin dependent diabetes. It used to be also called Juvenile diabetes, since it was evident prominently in new borns. It is caused due absence of insulin production by the pancreas, since the body's immune system kills the pancreatic cells (called Autoimmune disorder) leading to a damaged liver incapable of producing any insulin. Thus, high levels of glucose are retained in the blood damaging the blood vessels of eyes, kidney, liver, etc. and cells are deprived of the necessary energy. About 10% of the diabetes cases are Type 1.
Type 2 - This is also called adult-onset diabetes and used to onset in adults only post 40 years of age. But due to increase in the obesity ratios of teenagers and youths, anyone between the age of 20-30 is also becoming the victim of Type-2 diabetes. This is caused due to the insufficient production of insulin by Pancreas or when body becomes resistant to the insulin produced. About 90% of the cases of diabetes diagnosed are Type-2.
Both Type 1 and Type 2 affect the body by causing complications to various other organs like liver, kidney, heart, eyes, nerves etc. While Type 1 needs more care to be taken than Type 2, both need a healthy life-style, balanced nutrition for living a healthy and long life.
Gestational diabetes - This is onset in women during the middle or end of pregnancy and affects upto 2-10% of pregnancies. Care should be taken to address it immediately since, any change in blood sugar levels of the mother can affect the growth of the fetus. About 10% of women who are diagnosed of Gestational diabetes have the chances of developing Type 2 in future.