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X-rays X-rays X-rays X-rays

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X-rays

X-rays ;are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your body. The images show the parts of your body in different shades of black and white. This is because different tissues absorb different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and other soft tissues absorb less and look gray. Air absorbs the least, so the lungs look black.

The most familiar use of x-rays is checking for fractures (broken bones), but x-rays are also used in other ways. For example, chest x-rays can spot pneumonia. Mammograms use x-rays to look for breast cancer.

When you have an x-ray, you may wear a lead apron to protect certain parts of your body. The amount of radiation you get from an x-ray is small. For example, a chest x-ray gives out a radiation dose similar to the amount of radiation you're naturally exposed to from the environment over 10 days.

 

Metal detectors

Metal Detecting Machines are based on the science of electromagnetism. ;

Different metal ;detecting machines work in various different ways, but here's the science behind one of the simpler kinds. A metal detector contains a coil of wire (wrapped around the circular head at the end of the handle) known as the transmitter coil. When electricity flows through the coil, a magnetic field is created all around it. As you sweep the detector over the ground, you make the magnetic field move around too. If you move the detector over a metal object, the moving magnetic field affects the atoms inside the metal. In fact, it changes the way the electrons (tiny particles "orbiting" around those atoms) move. Now if we have a changing magnetic field in the metal, the ghost of James Clerk Maxwell tells us we must also have an electric current moving in there too. In other words, the metal detector creates (or "induces") some electrical activity in the metal. But then Maxwell tells us something else interesting too: if we have electricity moving in a piece of metal, it must create some magnetism as well. So, when you move a metal detector over a piece of metal, the magnetic field coming from the detector causes another magnetic field to appear around the metal.

It's this second magnetic field, around the metal, that the detector picks up. The metal detector has a second coil of wire in its head (known as the receiver coil) that's connected to a circuit containing a loudspeaker. As you move the detector about over the piece of metal, the magnetic field produced by the metal cuts through the coil. Now if you move a piece of metal through a magnetic field, you make electricity flow through it (remember, that's how a generator works). So, as you move the detector over the metal, electricity flows through the receiver coil, making the loudspeaker click or beep. Hey presto, the metal detector is triggered and you've found something! The closer you move the transmitter coil to the piece of metal, the stronger the magnetic field the transmitter coil creates in it, the stronger the magnetic field the metal creates in the receiver coil, the more current that flows in the loudspeaker, and the louder the noise.

 

Metal or needle detection: A must in the apparel and garment industry

Specifically designed zippers meant to go undetected by metal detectors are a must to speed up the processing of finished garments.

In the garment and apparel industry, metal needle detectors are utilized to detect needles that may have been accidentally lodged in finished garments. It is also necessary to ensure that garments and apparel meant to be sold or exported are devoid of all sorts of metal contaminants. Exporting garments embedded with needles or other unwanted metal articles could result in legal actions against the manufacturing company along with bad publicity and heavy financial losses. Thus, garment companies prefer to invest in metal detecting devices that thoroughly scan garments for needle or metal contamination.

Needle detection is also an integral part of the garment manufacturing companies that produce apparel for babies or kids.

 

Security Inspection Machine

Despite the rapid socio-economic development today, in a peaceful environment, the internal security environment is often affected by terrorists and other insecurity factors, putting us in a dangerous environment. Therefore, in this case, a large investment in a ;security inspection machine ;is very important. Through the use of security inspection devices, security can be better carried out, and the safety of public places can also be improved. ;

What is security equipment?

A security inspection machine is to check the safety of related articles in certain specific places. The equipment can help security personnel to do some safety hazard investigations and related management work. With the social and economic development, more and more security inspection devices. They can be divided into large, medium, and small equipment according to their size and application area. Among them, large-scale security inspection device is mainly used for goods inspection, such as customs, airports, railway containers, vehicle inspection, and so on. At present, medium-sized equipment is mainly used for large-scale activities, and the important safety objectives are the inspection of entrances and exits, personnel, and personal belongings; small equipment is mainly used for temporary security inspection. Tao features handheld devices that are easy to move and carry. From the category of detectable items, the commonly used equipment includes X-ray security inspection machines, metal detection doors, hand-held metal detectors, liquid detectors, automobile chassis video detection systems, etc.

 

Weighing Detector

The weighing detector is another term for a Load cell or force sensor. Like many sensors, weight sensors are available in many different forms or types. Each type of weight sensor has features that make them well suited to different applications.

Weighing detectors are a device used to measure force and load. They convert weight into an electrical signal which can be processed and used within various applications. To measure force and weight, most weight sensors used internal strain gauges to measure the weight.

posted May 24 by Cas15wo

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How Does a Metering Pump Work?

Metering pumps, also called dosing pumps, are pumps that are designed to dispense specific amounts of fluid and measured flow control. They use expanding and contracting chambers to move the liquids. Metering pumps also have a high level of accuracy over time and can pump a wide range of liquids including corrosives, acids, and bases, as well as slurries and viscous liquids. They are used in various industries like manufacturing, agriculture, and medicine. There are a variety of types of metering pumps that work in different ways. For the purposes of this post, we’ll look at diaphragm and peristaltic metering pumps.

How Diaphragm and Peristaltic Metering Pumps Work

Both types of metering pumps – diaphragm pumps and peristaltic – are very useful and will typically provide many years of reliable, efficient operation.

Diaphragm Metering Pumps

Diaphragm pumps are positive displacement pumps that move liquids using a reciprocating diaphragm. They are found to be very reliable because they don’t have internal parts that rub together, creating friction and leading to wear and tear. Additionally, because they don’t require seals or lubrication in the pump head, there isn’t a chance of oil vapor contamination or leakage of the media being pumped.

Simple diaphragm pumps have a diaphragm, two valves, a displacement chamber, and a driving mechanism. The diaphragm is a flexible membrane that vibrates to create suction to move fluid in and out of the pumping chamber. It is located between the side of the displacement chamber and an attached flange. The two valves are usually flapper valves or spring-loaded ball valves that are made of the same material as the diaphragm. They operate by admitting the liquid in and out of the chamber. The driving mechanism is what activates the diaphragm into operation. There are a number of different driving mechanisms that diaphragm pumps may use. The two most common are air operated and motor driven.

Air operated diaphragm metering pumps use compressed air to drive a double diaphragm (two diaphragms) alternatively. A shuttle valve alternates the air flow between the two diaphragms. The flow of the media that is being pumped is adjusted by how much air pressure is supplied to the pump.

Motor driven diaphragm metering pumps uses the rotary motion of a motor, which is converted to a reciprocating movement via a cam mechanism, to cause a displacement in the volume of the liquid, transferring it at a consistent rate.

Peristaltic Metering Pumps

Peristaltic metering pumps, like diaphragm metering pumps, are positive displacement pumps. However, they operate quite differently. Peristaltic pumps use rotating rollers to squeeze a flexible tube to move the liquid in a pressurized flow. As the tube is constricted and the low-pressure volume increases, it creates a vacuum that pulls the liquid into the tube. The liquid is then pushed through the tubing as the tubing is constricted at several points by the rollers. With each oscillating or rotating motion, the fluid flows through the tubing. Peristaltic metering pumps are designed as either circular (rotary) or linear.

Benefits of Metering Pumps

Metering pumps, whether diaphragm or peristaltic, provide many benefits to the industries where they are used. They are reliable for dispersing the exact amount of liquid that is needed accurately and consistently. Additionally, you will find the following advantages when using metering pumps:

They commonly move low amounts of liquid – Because metering pumps are so accurate and precise, they are often used to move low amounts of fluid. They are typically measured by their capability to pump gallons per minute, instead of gallons per hour, which is an industry standard.

They can pump various types of liquid – Metering pumps are able to move a variety of fluids, from thin to thick, and even hazardous or corrosive chemicals.

They can be used for many different applications – Metering pumps are used in many different industries including medicine, food processing, agriculture, and manufacturing.

They prevent contamination – Both diaphragm and peristaltic metering pumps are effective in preventing the media being pumped from contaminating the pump and the workspace.

While metering pumps work effectively for many applications and different liquids, it isn’t recommended that they be used for moving most types of gases.

Pressure and back pressure

High pressures are no problem in metering systems as long as there is something to counter them. ProMinent hydraulic diaphragm metering pumps therefore use a hydraulic fluid to create back pressure. The benefits

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What Is modified MDI?

As a derivative of the Pu Systems MDI series products, modified MDI is currently commonly used as a technical extension of pure MDI and polymeric MDI, which could be widely used in such sectors as slab polyols, elastomers, coatings and adhesives by providing its special properties of usage and processing due to differences of product structure design and synthesis process. There are various kinds of modified MDI, and several MDI manufacturers giants have also been stepping up the research and development of modified MDI, which has enriched modified MDI types. And the products that have been produced and used in a large scale.

 

The two major components of polyurethane formulations are a polyol component and an isocyanate component. Polyols for Polyurethanes and polyester polyols have been used as the polyol component in polyurethane formulations for many decades. They remain the most commonly used polyols. Vast numbers of polyether polyols and polyester polyols, optimized to provide different combinations of behavior during fabrication processes and performance characteristics of fabricated articles, are available from many different manufacturers.

More recently, polycarbonate polyols have been gaining increasing interest and use in polyurethane formulations, either by themselves or more often in mixtures with selected polyether polyols or polyester polyols, because of their many attractive attributes. These attributes include performance benefits resulting from the high-density polycarbonate backbone. Furthermore, polycarbonate polyols are based on carbon dioxide (CO2), and sequester CO2 directly in their backbones, enhancing the sustainability of polyurethanes.

The images shown in this post are reproduced from product literature by Novomer which is a leading supplier of polycarbonate polyols.

The following reaction scheme shows how CO2 is sequestered in the backbone of a polycarbonate polyol by reaction with an epoxide during synthesis. Many different “R” groups can be used, to provide a broad range of polycarbonate polyol molecular structures.

The functionality of a polycarbonate polyol can also be chosen as desired, by using any one of many different possible starting molecules. For example, the choices of the following three starting molecules produce, from left to right, a diol, a triol, and a tetrol.

Rigid polyisocyanurate panel foams with better blowing efficiency (and hence smaller density when using the same concentration of the blowing agent pentane) and smaller cell sizes were obtained, while keeping the formulation viscosity manageable, by mixing 25% to 70% by weight of a polycarbonate polyol with a polyester polyol.

 

What is Polyurethane Foam? And How is It Made?

What is Polyurethane Foam? Consumers and manufacturers alike may want to know the answer to this question. Are you a polyurethane foam technician, a plant manager, or the owner of the foaming plant itself? Do you want a stronger foundational understanding of how polyurethane flexible foaming actually works?

This article will detail the fundamental elements of polyurethane foaming, particularly as it applies to continuous flexible foaming.

At its most basic, polyurethane foam does two things in the factory. From the liquid stage it:

  • expands

  • and gels

The liquid first expands as air bubbles are introduced, then a secondary reaction gels, or hardens the material at some point in that expansion.

 

Let’s break down PU foaming Additives for Polyurethane by function. One of the most important additives is the catalyst, which can affect the basic reactions in several ways. It can speed the expansion, speed the gelling, cool the reaction (so you have less of a fire hazard on your hands), etc. There are also curing agents, which include chain-extenders and cross-linking agents. Chain-extenders, like their name suggests, extend polymer chains, which increases material flexibility. Cross-linking agents promote and strengthen cross-linkages, increasing structural integrity for more rigid foams.

Remember that CO2 gas from the reaction with water acts as a blowing agent? Well, other blowing agents may also be used or added. The main inconvenience of water blowing in the high temperature of the reaction, making PU foaming a fire hazard. Physical blowing agents (additives that physically encourage the expansion of cells instead of that initial CO2, which is chemically blown) reduce that fire hazard.

A similar class of additives is fillers. They come as particles or fibers. Particulate fillers can reduce flammability and add weight to foam (good for cushioning Flexible Foams). Fibrous fillers reinforce cell structure. All fillers function to 1) add physical properties like tensile or compressive strength to foam, and 2) save on costs by reducing the amount of liquid chemicals used per batch.

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