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Types of glass

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Types of glass

There are many different types of glass. They differ in terms of their chemical composition, the method used to produce them or their processing behaviour. Generally, they are categorised according to their chemical composition. A differentiation is made between

soda-lime glass, lead glass and borosilicate glass. These three types of glass make up around 95 percent of the cullet glass used in the production process. The remaining 5 percent of glass is special-purpose glass.

Soda-lime glass

Soda-lime glass is the glass produced in by far the largest quantities of all mass produced glass types. As the name indicates, the main constituents in addition to sand are soda and lime. A typical soda-lime glass contains 71 to 75 percent sand (SiO2), 12 to 16 percent sodium bicarbonate (Na2O), 10 to 15 percent lime (CaO) and small quantities of other substances such as dyes. Soda-lime glass is used to make bottles, food jars, simple drinking glasses and sheet glass products. Soda-lime glass is light permeable and has a smooth, fine-pored surface, making it easy to clean. It also expands very quickly under the influence of heat so care should always be taking when putting hot water into a soda-lime glass container.

Crystal glass

Crystal glass looks beautiful when cut as a result of its high refraction index. It has a far higher density than soda-lime glass. In our everyday lives, we use crystal glass to make drinking glasses, vases, bowls, ashtrays and decorative ornaments. Its composition is 54 to 65 percent sand, 13 to 15 percent alkali oxide and several other oxides. Glass containing more than 18 percent lead oxide is also known as lead crystal glass. However, lead oxide is hardly used today in glass production. Crystal glass only accounts for less than 0.5 percent of total tableware glass production in Germany.

Special glass

Special glass is used for special technical and scientific applications. Its composition can vary and it includes numerous chemical elements. Examples of special glass are lenses, glass products used by the electrical and electronics industries and glass ceramics.

How is curved glass made?

Manufacturing curved glass is a time-consuming, highly specialised job. You could almost say it's a ‘pane' to produce.

Workers cut the sheet of glass to size and then clean and polish it, using a UV lamp to check for dust or impurities (any rogue particles would cause the glass to crack or shatter). They construct a steel mould shaped to the curve radius and dimensions of the desired piece. To stop the pane sticking to the mould, the glass is painted with a mixture of detergent and calcium carbonate.

Then, it is placed on the mould and loaded into the kiln. The manufacturers crank up the heat to 700°C, hot enough to loosen the bonds between the silica molecules so that the glass starts to soften and bend to the profile of the mould. Once in shape, the glass is gradually cooled over a period of about two hours.

What It Means to Temper Glass

Tempered glass, or toughened glass, has been heat-treated to make it stronger and safer to prevent injury in case if it ever breaks. In fact, tempered glass is four to five times stronger than annealed, or untreated, glass. In the event of breakage, tempered glass fractures into small, relatively harmless pieces rather than jagged shards.

Most of the glass that you see in commercial and residential spaces has been tempered. Common applications include side and rear windows in vehicles, entrance doors, shower and tub enclosures, racquetball courts, patio furniture, microwave ovens, fireplace doors and grates, and skylights. Tempered glass is also used for interior railings, display cases, office walls, and anywhere else where robust, durable glass is called for.

Steps to Temper Glass:

Glass tempering occurs following the fabrication process via the following steps.

posted Apr 18 by Bop11mo

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Working in the mining industry can be a dangerous place if you don’t know what you’re doing. Regular training is essential and understanding the machines you’re working near or operating plays an important role in all aspects of the industry.

Each type of mining equipment comes with its own set of mining activities. The most common types of Mining Equipments and Parts vary depending on whether the work is being carried out above or below ground or mining for gold, metals, coal or crude oil. From drilling machines to excavators, crushing and grinding equipment – the mining industry comes complete with all the right tools. New to the job and want to find out what it all means? Here’s a few of the industry’s most common types of equipment and why they’re important for the job.

Mining Drills

Probably one of the most common pieces of mining equipment, drills are an important part of the underground mining operation. Underground mining is carried out when rocks or minerals are located at a fair distance beneath the ground. But then they need to be brought to the surface. Underground specialized mining equipment such as trucks, loaders, diggers etc. are used to excavate the material and are normally hauled to the surface with skips or lifts for further processing. Drilling is normally required to place explosive charges to liberate the minerals from the overburden material. Underground mining techniques have progressed significantly over the past years, including using remote controlled machinery.

Drills assist in creating holes descending underground. If miners are required to work underground, drills can also be used in ensuring the holes are large enough to serve as a portal for miners to enter. Directional drilling is also a type of mining technology where miners will use the tools and certain methods to drill wells.

 

Overview of Ball Mills

As shown in the adjacent image, a ball mill is a type grinding machine that uses balls to grind and remove material. It consists of a hollow compartment that rotates along a horizontal or vertical axis. It’s called a “ball mill” because it’s literally filled with balls. Materials are added to the ball mill, at which point the balls knock around inside the mill.

How a Ball Mill Works

Ball Mills work by using balls to grind materials. Materials such as iron ore, pain and ceramics are added to the ball mill. Next, the ball mill is activated so that it rotates — either on its vertical or horizontal axis. As the ball bill rotates, the balls bounce around while striking the enclosed material. The force of these strikes helps to grind the material into a finer, less-coarse medium.

For a ball mill to work, critical speed must be achieved. Critical speed refers to the speed at which the enclosed balls begin to rotate along the inner walls of the ball mill. If a ball mill fails to reach critical speed, the balls will remain stationary at the bottom where they have little or no impact on the material.

 

No industry puts its Pumps through the ringer quite like mining. When the price of commodities such as gold spike in the short term, there is no time to lose--companies have to act fast to extract whatever they can as quickly as possible. While this flurry of activity is great for stockholders, it is not ideal for equipment. Many pumps end up falling prey to a myriad of problems that range from corrosion to being crushed by heavier machinery. To protect mine dewatering pumps to the fullest extent, consider these six common threats that pumps may encounter during mining operations.

 

In the mining industry, Hydrocyclones are mineral processing equipment used in slurry pulps to separate coarse and fine particles according to their size and density. The mixture [slurry pulp] is injected into the hydrocyclone in such a way as to create the vortex and, depending upon the relative densities of the two phases, the centrifugal acceleration will cause the dispersed phase to move away from or towards the central core of the vortex.

Coarse particles exit the bottom of the device (underflow) while fine particles are carried by the central air column and exit at the top (overflow). In metal processing applications, the product stream is the overflow (fine particles) and is typically sent to flotation circuits. The product stream is the underflow (coarse particles), as fines are separated from the final product as a means of quality control.

While under certain conditions roping and plugging can occur where the hydrocyclones ceases to classify the particles, the shapes of the discharge are visibly different than normal operating conditions.

The roping condition occurs when the amount of solids in the underflow increases to such a point that its discharge velocity is limited, resulting in the accumulation of coarse solids in the separation chamber. This mass passes through the vortex, causing the inner air core to collapse and the discharge at the apex to take the form of a solid stream (rope) consisting of coarse material with high solids density. Roping conditions reduce recovery rates and efficiency in metals processing and lead to quality losses in copper processing.

 

Industrial Conveyor and Parts have many different designs and uses. Common types are belt, roller, motorized roller and overhead conveyors. We categorize them as floor style (mounted on the floor) or overhead. Use them to move products, create buffers and deliver products in sequence for a production line.

HOW ARE CONVEYORS USED?

Manufacturing engineers include conveyors in their production facilities for many reasons:

Moving products from point A to B (to avoid wasted time walking, or to reduce movements of forklifts, etc)

  • To carry products that are too heavy to for team members to lift

  • To move a product while operators are working on it (or adding to it). Like a final assembly conveyor at an auto plant

  • To avoid injury to workers from repetitive movement. Or to prevent damage to products caused by movement

  • To deliver products to a robot for processing. Or to receive products from a robot that are ready for the next step

 

Polyurethane & rubber Tensioned Screen Mats provide high wear and corrosive resistant screen media for all applications, from scalping to dewatering. Tensioned Screen Mats are available in a wide range of apertures and shore hardnesses.

Tensioned Screen Mats provide superior screening efficiency over conventional screening media, with substantially lower noise levels compared to standard woven wire screens.

The abrasion & impact resistance that Tensioned Screen Mats offer increases the product life span compared to woven wire screens.

 

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How to Use Different Types of Strapping Material

All interested parties are welcome to join in the ongoing revisions to D3953, Specification for Strapping, Flat Steels and Seals. The standard is under the jurisdiction of Subcommittee D10.25 on Palletizing and Unitizing of Loads, part of ASTM International Committee D10 on Packaging.

 

According to its scope, D3953 covers flat steel strapping and seals intended for use in closing, reinforcing, bundling articles for shipment, unitizing, palletizing and bracing for carloading, truckloading, lifting and lashing. "Most people have dealt with the material covered by D3953 without knowing it," says Anthony Mariano, Independent Metal Strap Co. Inc., and a D10 member.

 

"As one of the first modern materials used for unitizing and bundling, oiled steel strapping is well-known to packaging users, but since the last full review of D3953, there have been many changes in technology, especially in closure methods," says Peter Catlos, chairman of D10.25. These technological changes will be addressed in ongoing revisions.

 

Catlos notes that waxed steel strapping is widely used in the lumber, metals and paper industries. The standard is used to specify strapping products for purchase, in package design and in design of load securement techniques for over-the-road, rail and maritime transport of goods. Section 13 of D3953 includes several test methods for steel strapping.

 

Every person who has ever worked with galvanized steel strapping knows that this can be a potentially dangerous product. When talking to potential customers I hear many stories from people who have been injured by steel banding. Either caused by loose hanging pieces of cut metal strapping or when applying and the steel snapped unexpectedly. 

 

Companies take many safety precautions to protect their employees. Safety glasses, helmets, shoes are part of most workers Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) and still many companies provide their staff with "razor blades" to secure their products. Of course there are always people that deny the risks of steel banding but fact is that people getting cut is very high on the list of job related accidents.

 

Cordstrap already recognized this risk over 50 years ago and invented a safe alternative for steel banding. The latest generation of Cordstrap strapping is a composite strap made of high tenacity polyester yarns embedded in a PP coating. The Cordstrap strapping products are an extremely strong alternative for steel banding. Due to the unique buckle joint Cordstrap's overall system strength will be higher compared with steel banding.

 

Most of all, Cordstrap strapping systems are safe for your products, safe for your employees and safe for your customers. In Australia Cargo Restraint Systems offers a wide range of Cordstrap systems. We always welcome the opportunity to take a closer look at your applications and provide you with a safe solution. Just contact us and it will be our pleasure to assist you.

 

Pallet strapping, or banding is the process of using a metal or plastic strap to unitize, palletize or bundle products together. Strapping is used in a variety of industries from shipping large industrial equipment and lumber to reinforcing cases in e-commerce fulfilment centres. For this reason, there are many grades and types of materials on the market today.

 

Strapping is applied either manually with a hand tool or automatically with a strapping machine. In both cases, a strap or band is feed around the product and pulled taught. A fastening method then secures the ends of the strap around the product and the excess material is removed.

 

Strapping materials are available in many different strengths with specific grades and classifications. It is important to understand these grades and how they can affect your material choice when choosing your packaging. How your product is transported will affect the rating system and materials used. The two associations who grade strapping are the American Association of Railroads and ASTM International. Although ratings can be similar, it is important to understand that the designations are not interchangeable.

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7 Types of Industrial Storage Tanks Explained

Industrial storage tanks are containers used for storage of gas, oil, water, and petrochemical products, employed for industrial uses. Industrial storage tanks come in different sizes and shapes.

They can be underground, horizontal, and vertical, and be made from concrete, stone, fiberglass, steel or plastic.

Industrial storage tanks can be categorized into several types based on the substance they hold and some other factors.

1. Industrial Fuel Storage Tanks

Industrial fuel storage tanks, known as petroleum tanks also, can store various fluids. In general, they are used for storing non-organic and organic liquids. They can also hold vapor as well as different flammable fluids. Fuel storage tanks are manufactured in various designs and sizes. They are designed to store a variety of fuels, vapor, and industrial liquids.

Types of Industrial Fuel Storage Tanks

There are two main types of fuel storage tanks – Aboveground tanks and Underground tanks.

Aboveground Fuel Tanks

Aboveground fuel tanks (AST) are quite popular because of their lower long-term maintenance and upfront costs. These tanks are more cost-effective to install compared to underground tanks since you don’t need to spend for backfilling, deep excavation, and pavement of more involved piping.

Aboveground fuel tanks offer greater ease of maintenance compared to the below ground tanks. You can check them easily for leaks and access for repairs. This is the reason aboveground fuel storage tanks are preferred for storing fuels and chemicals.

Underground Storage Tanks

In Underground storage tank (UST), at least 10% of the tank’s stored volume is buried underground. Such tanks that are used for storing hazardous materials or fuels are regulated, and must have registration with the EPA.

These tanks are suitable for people wanting to maximize the space and/or value of their property. Underground storage tanks can be put beneath lawns and driveways, where they are not visible. Arguably, these types of tanks are safer as the chance of explosion is very little. However, the chance of leaks as well as that of generating pollution is increased in case of these tanks as they cannot be inspected often.

2. Industrial Chemical Storage Tanks

Industrial chemical storage tanks are employed for storing fertilizers, propane, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products (gasoline, diesel), crude oil, and other chemicals. Industrial chemical storage tanks are available in various shapes and sizes. These storage tanks are used for mixing, processing, static storage, and transport of finished chemical products as well as raw materials.

Types of Industrial Chemical Storage Tanks

There are three chief types of industrial chemical storage tanks available –

? Stainless steel tanks
? Polyethylene tanks,
? Fiberglass (FRP) tanks

Stainless steel storage tanks are effective and durable; however, they are not suitable for many acids as well as are the most expensive option.

Fiberglass tanks are suitable for some applications. However, they have seams that may leak, need increased maintenance, more prone to human error as they are handcrafted, and are susceptible to certain chemicals such as hydrofluorosilicic acid – a chemical which etches glass (FRP’s structural component).

Polyethylene storage tanks come in cross-linked as well as linear polyethylene, and make the most versatile industrial storage tanks in the market.

Consider the Chemical to be Stored

When planning an industrial chemical storage tank unit, the most important factor to consider first is the chemical to be stored. It’s wrong to believe that if a storage tank can hold water, it can hold a chemical too. While a water storage tank might hold a chemical for some time, remember that the tank has not been designed specifically to store the chemical. Several factors may degrade the tank, causing leaks and leading to other hazards.

Fortunately, polyethylene industrial storage tanks can handle any chemical type that you want to store. Polyethylene chemical storage tanks are affordable, sturdy, and strong. Polyethylene storage tanks are made in a mold that rules out the likelihood of human error. Moreover, these tanks are available in various options which help in protecting your storage environment, the chemical, and your employees.

The chief types of polyethylene materials used for chemical storage tanks are – Linear Polyethylene and Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE).

Safety Concerns for Chemical Tanks

A failed or damaged chemical tank can lead to serious property damage and environmental contamination. If chemical storage tanks spill or leak, the chemicals stored may flow into streams and lakes, contaminate groundwater and drinking water, or catch fire. Chemical fire can lead to contamination of water and soil as well as pose threats to human health.

Failure of chemical storage tanks may occur due to deterioration or corrosion, construction flaws, poor maintenance, spills during transfers, overfills, and lack of or improper containment for leaks.

3. Industrial Oil Storage Tanks

Oil storage tanks are reservoirs or containers that hold oil temporarily during the different phases of processing into oil products of various types, or before it’s consumed or used. The materials and structure of industrial oil storage tanks are based on their application as well as the safety, environmental, and legal requirements of other kinds in the storage area.

Oil storage tanks in different sizes, shapes, materials, and types are employed from crude oil’s initial production to the distribution and refining of different petroleum oil products.

Modern industrial oil storage tanks come in the materials – carbon steel, stainless steel, reinforced concrete, and plastic. They are also carved on rock salt deposits that are mostly impermeable, for underground storage of oil. Various oil storage tank types have been built over time.

Types of Industrial Oil Storage Tanks

Floating Roof Tank

As the name suggests, the floating roof tank consists of a floating roof which falls or rises according to the level of oil in the tank. To prevent the build-up of vapor inside the tank, the floating roof in this type of tanks has been incorporated as a safety feature.

Fixed Roof Tank

In the fixed roof tank, the oil stored is not exposed. This tank type is employed for holding oil products in lower volumes than in case of tanks having floating roofs.

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Depending on the type of food being packed, packing comes in various types. To pack these food materials, various Multi-Lane Packing Machines are used. The packing styles also change depending on the storage life of the product.

Food that are high perishable like fresh processed meats and frozen items are best when vacuum packed since it can tremendously extend its storage life. There is a separate type of Stick Bag Packing Machine or food packing equipment used to perform vacuum packaging of the products.

Here are the various types of food packaging machines:

 

Food Vacuum Packaging Machine:

It is one of the most efficient Horizontal Doypack Packing Machine to pack foods because it avoids air making food remain fresh. As aerobic microorganisms are responsible in swift deterioration of foods, they hardly thrive or are immobilized under this condition.

Food vacuum packaging machine helps to extend storage life of food products thereby making the product well suited for sale on the freezer or cold display storage units of several retail stores.

 

Biscuit Packaging Machine

Biscuit packaging machine is another type of food packaging equipment. It is usually fitted with electronic digital temperature controller to maintain high precision in achieving the desired temperature during food packing process.

It helps to bring the optimum freshness of the food. The most interesting aspect of this Stand Up Pouch Machine is that packaged products are closely monitored with its automatic feed counter that shows the quantity of items placed packed by the machine. This makes it easier for the food manufacturing companies to monitor daily factory output.

 

Bundling Food Packaging Equipment

Bundling Food packaging Equipment is quite common and is widely used by many food suppliers. It is capable of storing huge quantity of foods before they are banded or wrapped together as a single bundle.

It is also called as the Spout Pouch Packing Machine. It can also be used for packing small items such as stick candies or individually packed hot-dogs that need to be bundled together for economic purposes.

 

Bagging Machine

It is popular in several China food processing factories. Foods in this case are packed in bags, sacks and pouches. This bagging machine is common to pack cereals and powdered foods such as milk powder and sugar.

 

Closing Machines

These closing Irregular Doypack Machines are similarly common in many food factories. This equipment is used to tie metal wires to enclose the food bag or pouch.

 

Capping Machines

Capping machines are popular among food suppliers of food syrups and drinks. This equipment is not used solely to pack food items but it is usually used in conjunction with other food packaging equipment.

The major function of this equipment is to close bottled food items by placing air-tight caps. This is common in soda-manufacturing companies.

 

Accumulation machinery

Accumulation machinery is used along with the capping machine. This Premade Pouch Packing Machine allows proper alignment of bottles for systematic and organized filling of foods. It is used in soda companies and bottled-water companies.

There are various types of food packaging machines. It is important to tailor-fit the selection when yo buy one of these machineries according to the type of food that is being packaged to ensure optimum quality products with fully extended storage life.

 

When looking to price a Vertical Packing Machine, You may experience sticker shock. There are a few items you will need to consider when taking the price of these machines into consideration. Here are the items that will affect the cost of your chosen equipment.

  • Functionality - A food packaging machine could cost you anywhere between $10,900 - $65,000. The functionality of each machine has a big effect on the cost of the equipment. The price of your machine is going to be based upon the equipment's capabilities, factoring in things like speed, the hourly volume of packages produced, and whether the Horizontal Flat Pouch Packing Machine is a manual or automatic model.

  • Mechanical Components - Manual models will have less moving parts, internal computer-controlled motors and other more complicated components. As such, automatic models that can be programmed and run automatically via the control panel will cost more than the manual models available.

  • Capabilities - Depending on the model you choose and the machine's capabilities, you will have to consider your cost of materials. Entry-level machines are going to package less volume and use less materials daily versus a high-end automatic Single Lane Stick Bag Packing Machine. While a high-end automatic model will cost a lot more upfront, running higher amounts of materials will help you cut costs as you will generally get discounts on materials orders for larger volumes of product purchased. In this respect, your total cost of ownership over time will be less for more expensive higher-end models.

 

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