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Hibiscus syriacus Extract from an Established Cell Culture Stimulates Skin Wound Healing

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Hibiscus syriacus Extract from an Established Cell Culture Stimulates Skin Wound Healing

Higher plants are the source of a wide array of bioactive compounds that support skin integrity and health. Hibiscus syriacus, family Malvaceae, is a plant of Chinese origin known for its antipyretic, anthelmintic, and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to assess the healing and hydration properties of H. syriacus ethanolic extract (HSEE). We established a cell culture from hibiscus extract and obtained an ethanol soluble extract from cultured cells. The properties of the extract were tested by gene expression and functional analyses on human fibroblast, keratinocytes, and skin explants. HSEE treatment increased the healing potential of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Specifically, HSEE significantly stimulated fibronectin and collagen synthesis by 16 and 60%, respectively, while fibroblasts contractility was enhanced by 30%. These results were confirmed on skin explants, where HSEE accelerated the wound healing activity in terms of epithelium formation and fibronectin production. Moreover, HSEE increased the expression of genes involved in skin hydration and homeostasis. Specifically, aquaporin 3 and filaggrin genes were enhanced by 20 and 58%, respectively. Our data show that HSEE contains compounds capable of stimulating expression of biomarkers relevant to skin regeneration and hydration thereby counteracting molecular pathways leading to skin damage and aging.


Wound healing is a dynamic physiological process by which the skin regenerates itself upon injury. The restoration of tissue integrity is the result of the interaction between several distinct cellular elements (keratinocytes, fibroblasts, monocytes/macrophages, and endothelial cells) and extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as fibronectin and collagen whose contraction encourages the edges of the wound to shrink together [1]. The supply of the ideal microenvironment at the wound surface is fundamental for reaching full skin wound's healing potential. Indeed, adverse factors, such as infection, mechanical stress, or toxic agents, can significantly affect the skin ability to heal. Additionally, the process of wound healing is altered in a dry skin and skin of aged individuals [2]. Skin dryness alters the ability of epithelial cells to migrate and cover the wound site and reduces the supply of white blood cells and nutrients, which are essentials to form new tissues and protect skin against infections [3].


Skin hydration depends on the humidity of the environment and the hygroscopic properties of the stratum corneum, the uppermost epidermal layer. The ability of the stratum corneum to retain water relies on the natural moisturizing factor (NMF), a set of substances including ions, small solutes, and free amino acids which are largely formed by the breakdown products of filaggrin protein [4].


Skin care products are often developed from plants. Higher plants are the source of a wide array of biochemicals that can support the health and integrity of the skin and are widely used in cosmetic formulations.


H. syriacus, family Malvaceae, is a plant of Chinese origin already known in Asia for its antipyretic, anthelmintic, and antifungal properties [5]. H. syriacus extract was previously shown to have antioxidant capacity [6] and antiproliferative effects on human lung cancer cells [7]. However, the leaves of hibiscus calyx extract genus are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Accordingly, topical application of H. syriacus extract was found to stimulate hair growth thereby validating the ethnomedical use of this plants for hair loss treatment [8].


Remarkably, H. rosa-sinensis of the genus hibiscus extract powder was previously reported to efficiently act as wound healing agent by increasing cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis [9]. More recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicated Hibiscus syriacus L. flower absolute (HSF) as a highly effective agent for wound treatment because of its ability to promote keratinocyte proliferation and migration [10].


A chemical study performed on raw material from the epigeal part of the plant revealed the presence of flavonoids [dihydroquercetin, herbacetin, kaempferol, saponaretin, and saponarin] previously demonstrated to be able to reduce UVB-induced erythema and tumorigenesis [11]. Furthermore, H. syriacus extract was also found to be rich in anthocyanins, fatty acids, and several types of pigments [12].


Nowadays, cell suspension cultures from plants provide a viable alternative over whole plant cultivation for the production of secondary metabolites. They represent standardized, contaminant-free, and biosustainable sources of beneficial bioactive compounds for cosmetics on an industrial scale [12, 13].


We have established stem cell suspension cultures of H. syriacus and prepared a hydro/alcoholic extract rich in flavonoids and coumarins. Here, we present a study aimed at evaluating the wound healing and hydration properties of Hibiscus syriacus extract from cell suspension culture.


Since ancient times, Hibiscus. species (Malvaceae) have been used as a folk remedy for the treatment of skin diseases, as an antifertility agent, antiseptic, and carminative. Some compounds isolated from the species, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and polysaccharides, are considered responsible for these activities. This review aims to summarize the worldwide reported biological activities and phytoconstituents associated with this genus for the past 40 years.


Hibiscus. (Malvaceae) is a genus of herbs, shrubs, and trees; its 250 species are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. About 40 species occur in India. Many Hibiscus. species are valued as ornamental plants and are cultivated in gardens. Some species, such as Hibiscus cannabinus. L. and Hibiscus sabdariffa. L., are important sources of commercial fiber, whereas some species are useful as food, and yet others are medicinal (Anonymous, 1959). Many species belonging to this genus have been used since ancient times as folk remedies for various disorders. In Ayurveda, Hibiscus esculentus. L. fruits are considered tonic, astringent, and aphrodisiac. In Unani medicine, the fruits are considered emollient and useful for treating urinary disorders (Parrotta, 2001). The leaves and roots of Hibiscus manihot. L. are used as a poultice for boils, sprains, and sores, and the flowers are used to treat chronic bronchitis and toothache. The mucilage of the bark is considered to be an emmenagogue (Chopra et al., 1950). The seeds of Hibiscus abelmoschus. L. are valued for their diuretic, demulcent, and stomachic properties and are considered stimulant, antiseptic, cooling, tonic, carminative, and aphrodisiac. The bark, flowers, and fruits of Hibiscus bauiferus. J.G. Froster are used externally for the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, scabies, psoriasis, and ringworm. In Ayurvedic medicine, the bark is the official source of the drug “parisha,” a reputed remedy for skin diseases (Parrota, 2001).


According to the literature, many Hibiscus. species have been investigated and found to contain many classes of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, anthocyanins, terpenoids, steroids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, amino acids, lipids, sesquiterpene, quinones, and naphthalene groups. Some of these compounds have been shown to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antifertility, hypoglycemic, antifungal, and antioxidative activities (Kholkute et al., 1977a; Parmar & Ghosh, 1978; Gangrade et al., 1979; Jain et al., 1997; Faraji & Tarkhani, 1999; Lin et al., 2003; Sachdewa & Khemani, 2003).


This review describes the currently available chemical and biological data on the genus Hibiscus. and suggests that the flavonoids and phenolic acids are the main classes of substances of interest to a phytochemist and pharmacologist. A number of reports have been published to establish the biological potential of this genus (Table 1).

posted Mar 29 by Aop21sd

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Benefits of Face Towels for a Healthy Skin

Many think about towels as a product we use without giving it much idea. For others, however, towels speak to their little components of self-spoiling, comfort, and even extravagance.

In the event that you set foot in a top of the line hotel, you unquestionably discovered face towels, hand towels, bath towels, and bath sheets. Today we will concentrate on the face towel since they are (or ought to be) the most as often as possible used kinds of towels in an individual's home.?

Towels are a steady piece of our life and they enable us to keep great cleanliness and wellbeing. Also, a few towels can make us feel enveloped by veritable cases of solace; thusly, we have to take great consideration of them. Our face towels are forefront warriors and have a hard time.



A Face Cloth is fundamentally a face towel or otherwise called a washcloth. It is normally a square bit of retentive terry fabric material with differing thickness. A face towel measures somewhat 12 by 12 inches (30x30cm) in general.


Face towels purpose is to ensure you get the best of face care you can get. They need to dry your face and clean it of water, cleanser, characteristic skin oil and face makeup residues and leftovers.

You will discover face towels in hotels, spas, and gyms or therapeutic offices. They ought to be increasingly basic in individuals' restrooms also on the grounds that the grime and soil from your other body parts ought to never finish up all over. You need an exceptional thing for face cleanliness and this is the washcloths primary reason.


Face towel must be changed on a regular routine. You should have one for every day of the week so have at least 7 pieces. A messy towel will straightforwardly influence your skin and if your skin is touchy so make certain to use a perfect towel every time.



Towels come in numerous textures and thread counts. You will discover both face towels and other towels in:

100% Natural cotton,


100% Bamboo

Bamboo mixes,

Egyptian cotton,

Turkish cotton

Linen etc.

While we are regarding the matter of textures, we need to underscore on the best selections of towels when you need to purchase the towels for your face which means the most skin the most sensitive part of our body which is exposed to sun, dirt, pollutants.

Face towels ought to be:


Delicate with your face skin,

Simple to wash - ideally Machine Washable

Strong and Durable to continuous use

and soft.

Thinking about these criteria, you should search for the top of the line cotton face towels, with Turkish cotton being a preferred decision as far as quality, non-abrasiveness and warmth go.

In the event that you need your face towel to accompany high criteria, microfibre face towels are additionally a magnificent decision.


After you use a towel once, it gathers the skin particles, soil and oil from your face. You should just use towels one time and after that place them in the clothing. It's normal to need to use a towel more than that, however, even after a shower, your towel gathers a great deal of things that you would prefer not to contact your face.

Hotel Towels Buying Guide

Whether your guests are only spending the night or enjoying a weeklong vacation, you'll want to make sure they feel right at home with the luxury of quality hotel towels. Yet supplying the right amenities for your hotel's bathroom or spa facilities is not as easy as it might seem. Browsing through our site, you will find different towel materials, border types, and other factors that may sway your decision. If you're unsure about any of these factors, you've come to the right place. And even if you know that you need a bath sheet rather than a regular bath towel, for instance, this hotel towels guide breaks down important purchasing features like material, weight, and price so that you can make the best selection for your specific business.

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Pipe Fittings: Various aspects of Using them

Pipe fitting is meant for plumbing and piping system which is used in commercial and industrial industries. Fitting helps pipes to be joined properly so as to close them wherever required. These fittings can be found in market in different sizes and shapes. Besides, they can demand more time and can be expensive. They use distinct tools and materials to join and install. If you are working with plumbing or piping, then it is very essential to use pipe fitting.

There is an assortment of fitting available in market. All pipes require a unique type of fitting but there are certain common features which are shared by all type of pipe fittings. Wherever materials for plumbing are sold, you can easily and conveniently find pipe fittings.

How to connect pipe fittings with the pipe?
You can find pipe fittings in two varieties, female fittings and male fittings. The female threads are there on the inner side in a threaded pipe fitting. Street fittings are those having a male and a female end. Tube and pipes can be connected using pipe fittings in two ways:

Threaded pipes are twisted together for joining them. In most cases, metal pipes have threaded fittings.

Slip fit
Sleeves are used with slip fit pipes and they slip into each other. Generally, plastic pipes are slip fit but they can also be threaded.

What criteria should be considered in selection of pipe fitting?

There are certain factors to be considered while selecting pipe fitting:

Types of connection
While you are embarking on the journey of buying pipe fittings, you must keep in mind that there are two types of connectors. It may be that one end is female threaded while the other female slip. Or it may be that one end is male slip while the other end is threaded when you are talking about plastic fittings. Besides, they are also available with matching ends, which can house all requirements.

Construction materials
It is a common phenomenon that the pipe fitting material should be same as the material used in the pipe. Nevertheless, at times, certain materials can also be used in pipes of made of any material.

Checking it for flow
In comparison to the rest of the pipe fitting, the end of the fitting should be made a bit larger in order to keep it flowing consistently. It will help in accommodation of the connection without causing damage to the pipe’s inner diameter.

Fitting type
In addition to the material of the pipe, the type of fitting should also be taken care of, which include threaded or slip fitting and male or female fit.

Pipe fittings size is measured in different ways at the outside and inside end. The outside edge of the pipe fittings are measured in cases of male threaded fittings while in case of female threaded fittings, size is measure from inside edge of the inlet.

Different pipes are designed to carry different fluids like gases, liquid or chemicals. In accordance to the purpose of the pipe, there are varied pipe fitting designs available.

Pipe fittings are also available in different thickness same as pipes.

Codes and standards
Various organizations have set different standards in accordance of which pipe fittings are graded. Some of those standards associated with pipe fittings are ASTM, BSP, and ASME.

What are the main uses of ppr pipe fittings?

Ppr pipe fittings are the most commonly used materials in home decoration, and their capabilities are not small, such as water supply, hot water pipe systems, heating pipe systems and air conditioning pipes. Engineering hot water is generally directly related to the use of ppr pipe fittings, which are more stable, safe, easy to install, and cost-effective. Engineering hot water ppr pipe fittings can also be hidden. When the concealed pipe penetrates the wall, in order to ensure the safety, service life and maintenance of the pipe, a metal sleeve can be installed to ensure the installation of ppr pipe fittings.
In installation engineering, ppr pipe fittings have the advantage of hot-melt connection. Pipes and pipe fittings are welded by temperature heating, so that water is not easy to leak, but the heating temperature and time need to be accurate and not too long. If the temperature is too high for too long, the pipes and fittings will be damaged by hot melt. If the time is too short and the temperature is too low, the pipes and fittings will be unstable and easy to burst.

Nowadays, ppr pipe fittings are becoming more and more popular in society, involving water supply, sewage, irrigation, gas transmission and other uses. Due to its own advantages and characteristics, it can stand out in the pipeline market and occupy a very important position.
PPR is a random copolymer polypropylene. In winter, the flexibility of PPR water pipes will decrease, while the rigidity will increase and flatten. If the pipe is impacted by an external force, the surface of the pipe will crack more seriously.
Therefore, ppr pipe fittings manufacturers suggest that when we use or install ppr pipe fittings in winter, we need to be more careful to prevent pipe collisions and littering. Caring for the pipeline means caring for our own water consumption.

Get to Know About PPR Pipe


PPR pipe as a common pipeline water supply system is widely used in various construction industries, including residential domestic piping systems, hotels and shopping mall plumbing projects, etc...

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Low operational cost:
The operational cost of vehicles running on CNG, as compared to those running on other fuels, is significantly low. At the prevailing price of fuel in Delhi, Operational cost of CNG vehicles is 66% lower than petrol and 28% lower than diesel.

Increased life of oils:
Another practical advantage observed is the increased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not contaminate and dilute the crankcase oil.

Mixes evenly in air:
Being a gaseous fuel CNG mixes in the air easily and evenly.

a) Easy on the pocket.
b) CNG delivers high performance at low cost, as it gives your vehicle a better mileage.
c)CNG does not contaminate or dilute crank case oil, giving engine an extended life.

Eco friendly:
a) The use of CNG significantly reduces harmful vehicular exhaust gas emissions like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other suspended particles.
b) It protects the environment by reducing the effects of global warming.
c) Non –toxic, non-corrosive, non-carcinogenic and hence improves public health.

Safe &Reliable:
a) CNG is lighter than air and hence disperses quickly without any dangerous accumulation.
b) CNG has a narrow flammability range making it much safer than other fuels.
c) CNG has a higher ignition temperature than other fuels, reducing chances of accidental and spontaneous ignition.

It matters how the electricity is made

Broadly speaking, most electric cars sold today tend to produce significantly fewer planet-warming emissions than most cars fueled with gasoline. But a lot depends on how much coal is being burned to charge up those plug-in vehicles. And electric grids still need to get much, much cleaner before electric vehicles are truly emissions free.

One way to compare the climate impacts of different vehicle models is with this interactive online tool by researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who tried to incorporate all the relevant factors: the emissions involved in manufacturing the cars and in producing gasoline and diesel fuel, how much gasoline conventional cars burn, and where the electricity to charge electric vehicles comes from.

If you assume electric vehicles are drawing their power from the average grid in the United States, which typically includes a mix of fossil fuel and renewable power plants, then they’re almost always much greener than conventional cars. Even though electric vehicles are more emissions-intensive to make because of their batteries, their electric motors are more efficient than traditional internal combustion engines that burn fossil fuels.

Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) can offer an array of economic and environmental benefits to California residents. These may include the economic benefits of a low-cost, domestic fuel, developing a market for green jobs, improving regional air quality, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing our dependence on petroleum and providing a pathway to a hydrogen economy.

Environmental Benefits

Natural gas vehicles can have an immediate and positive impact on the issues of air quality, U.S. energy security and public health. Here are some key benefits of using natural gas as a transportation fuel.

NGVs are Clean

NGVs are some of the cleanest vehicles in commercial production today, and produce only 5-10 percent of the emissions allowable, even by today's most stringent standards. NGVs produce 20-30 percent less greenhouse gases than gasoline- or diesel-powered vehicles.

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Benefits of Using Biodegradable Disposables

The Great Pacific garbage patch, which is a massive plastic garbage floating halfway between Hawaii and California, has grown to 1.6 million square kilometers or about thrice the size of France. The worst part? This floating patch of trash is just one of the five offshore plastic accumulation zones in the world's oceans. We are faced with a worsening garbage problem and yet, there is no real way of cleaning up the oceans and eliminating plastic trash. With 2.41 million tons of plastic garbage choking marine life, finding better alternatives to single-use plastic products is more important than ever before.


What are Biodegradable Disposables Made of?

Most biodegradable round plates and compostable disposables are made from bagasse, bamboo, recycled paper, cornstarch, and even fallen leaves. ECO Gardener’s range of biodegradable plates is made from untreated, plantation timber that’s 100% sustainable and earth-friendly. Since these products are not chemically treated, they are suitable for kids and young children.

Why Switch to Biodegradable Plates and Compostable Disposables?

Most of the garbage that ends up in landfills and oceans is made up of plastic food packaging. Using biodegradable products may reduce the trash that ends up in landfills and the world’s oceans.

Unfortunately, food and plastic packaging manufacturers are finding more and more reasons for using plastic food packaging. Plastic is widely used because it’s a cheap and accessible material. Disposable containers are convenient to use but their negative impact on the environment cannot be ignored. It is also worth noting that single-use plastic products are not made from sustainable materials. It will also take a long, long time before plastic materials decompose so using these will only add up to our growing trash problem.

Biodegradable plates and compostable disposables are just as convenient to use as single-use plastic products sans the negative impact on the environment. These products do not deplete the earth’s natural resources. Biodegradable plates and compostable disposables will not harm the environment because they will break down completely once discarded.

Benefits of Using Biodegradable Plates and Compostable Disposables

Environmentally Friendly Entertaining

If you have guests over or you are hosting a party, you’ll probably use a lot of plates and cutlery. Rather than using plastic plates, plastic spoons and forks, use paper plates and wooden cutlery. These products are just as useful as traditional plastic plates and cutlery but they are more eco-friendly.

Plates and cutlery made from biodegradable materials are more environmentally friendly because these do not leave behind toxic chemicals or residues. In addition, these products degrade over time, releasing earth-friendly nutrients back into the soil. Sure, biodegradable plates and wooden cutlery may be more expensive than single-use plastic products but the price difference is quite small. It’s just a small price to pay for hosting an environmentally sound party!


Easy Composting

Got your own compost? Making your own compost is a great way to transform kitchen and yard wastes into something useful for the garden. You can also sell your own compost; it’s a great way to boost your earnings. Using eco-friendly plates and cutlery makes composting much more convenient. You can simply toss the discarded biodegradable plates into your compost bin. This makes post-party cleanup much easier too.

When adding discarded biodegradable plates to your compost, make sure the plates do not have food residues on them. Also, do not add too many biodegradable square oval plates in one bin to avoid disturbing the balance of the compost pile. Our advice is to designate a place where guests could discard the biodegradable plates they have used. Simply let your guests know about the spot and why it’s important to discard the plates properly.

Energy Efficient

Did you know that making biodegradable plates and compostable disposables are more energy efficient compared to manufacturing single-use plastics? Plates and cutlery that degrade require less energy to be manufactured. In addition, the materials used for biodegradable plates and cutlery are renewable so they will not deplete the earth’s natural resources. Usually, these products are made from sugarcane, bamboo, corn, etc.

In addition, manufacturers of biodegradable products are more mindful of their own carbon footprint and are likely to take steps to reduce the greenhouse gases they produce. Using biodegradable plates and compostable disposables will definitely reduce your carbon footprint too.



Plastic products, particularly food packaging, are notorious for leaching toxic chemicals to food. That’s because single-use plastics are treated with a cocktail of chemicals including dyes, bleaches, and inks. Some of these products are safe, others not so much. For instance, plastic bottles release harmful chemicals like Bisphenol A when exposed to hot drinks. These chemicals affect the endocrine system, causing a variety of health problems ranging from hormonal imbalance, metabolic problems, to certain cancers.

The same thing cannot be said for biodegradable disposables. These products are plastic-free; they are made from plant-based materials that are 100% safe and earth-friendly. Because biodegradable disposables are made from non-toxic materials, you can enjoy your hot meals and drinks without worrying about chemicals making their way into your food.

For your next party, make the switch to disposables. Biodegradable disposables, such as biodegradable trays, are the perfect alternative to plastic or Styrofoam plates and utensils.

ECO Gardener offers a great selection of biodegradable plates made from chemical-free materials!

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What is a chainsaw?

The clue is in the name! A ChainSaw has two main parts: a saw blade built into a chain, wrapped around a long metal guide bar, and a small, one-cylinder gasoline (petrol) engine (sometimes an electric motor powered by a cord or battery pack). The chain is a bit like a bicycle chain, running around sprockets (gear wheels designed to turn a chain) only with about 30 or so sharp teeth (made from a hardened steel alloy) mounted around it at intervals. Inside the engine, as the piston moves in and out of the cylinder, it pushes a connecting rod that turns a crankshaft. The crankshaft turns gears that are connected (through a centrifugal clutch, explained below) to one of the sprockets on which the chain is mounted—and the chain spins around.


What happens inside a chainsaw?

Yes, crudely speaking, that's what Chainsaw Cylinder Piston Kits do: in scientific terms, it converts the chemical energy locked in gasoline into mechanical energy you can use to "do work," turning a tree into logs, sawdust, noise, and heat. Here's a very simplified explanation:

  1. The fuel you put in a chainsaw's gas tank contains, in chemical form, all the energy you'll consume cutting down and chopping up logs. To keep it nice and light, a typical chainsaw tank holds just 0.5 liters (1.1 US liquid pints) of gas (a car's gas tank holds maybe 45–55 liters or 12–15 US liquid gallons, which is roughly 100 times more).

  2. The fuel feeds through a carburetor to mix it with air.

  3. The air-fuel mixture passes into a cylinder, which works much like the ones in a car engine but with only a simple push-pull (two-stroke) action instead of the more complex (four-stroke) cycle used in a car. Inside the cylinder, the air-fuel mix is ignited by a spark (sparking) plug, burns, releases its energy, and pushes a piston back and forth. The piston in a Chainsaw Baffles engine has a bore (diameter) of about 45mm (1.75 in) and a stroke (traveling distance) of about 33mm (1.3 inches)—so it's less than half the size of a typical car engine piston and moves only half as far.

  4. A connecting rod and crank convert the back and forth motion of the piston to rotary motion.

  5. A drive shaft takes power to the centrifugal clutch.

  6. A chainsaw engine runs all the time, but you don't want the chain spinning unless you're actually cutting wood: that's dangerous and it wastes energy. The clutch solves this problem. As explained in more detail below, the centrifugal clutch connects the engine and the chain when the engine speed is fast (when the operator pulls on the throttle) and stops the chain from spinning when the engine speed is low (when the Stihl Chainsaw Replacement Parts are just idling).

  7. Gears carry power from the clutch to the sprocket that holds the chain.

  8. The chain spins around the edge of a long-steel plate called the guide bar, spitting out wood dust as it goes!



The main advantage of using a chainsaw—speed—is fairly obvious. It would be hard to spend an entire day chopping your way through a forest with a handsaw, but you could certainly do that with a chainsaw.

A little crude math shows why a Chainsaw Chain is maybe 5–10 times quicker than an ordinary hand saw. Think how many planks of wood you could make from a single, trimmed tree trunk: maybe ten or fifteen? Now think how laborious it is to saw through a single plank with a handsaw; cutting through an entire tree is going to take you at least 10 times as long, assuming you don't run out of energy or melt your saw blade first.

Let's try a more sophisticated estimate. Suppose you have a tree that is 30cm (roughly 1ft) in diameter and a chainsaw that makes a cut of 0.5mm (0.02in) into the wood with each pass of the chain. That means the chain needs to pass through the wood 600 times (30cm = 300mm and it takes two chain passes to remove each mm). If you're using a powerful chainsaw with a rotational speed of about 2800rpm (call it 3000rpm to make the math easy), the chain will (theoretically) make 600 passes in just 20 seconds. In practice, it'll take somewhat longer. Let's say a minute.

How long would it take with a handsaw? Suppose your saw has teeth the same size as the chainsaw's and suppose it's roughly the same length as the Husqvarna Chainsaw Parts (and therefore half as long as the chain). You still need to make those 600 passes through the wood. Maybe you're superhuman: suppose you can make one complete pass of the saw each second and keep up that pace constantly. Then it's still going to take, as a minimum, 600 seconds—or 10 minutes. In practice, it's going to take quite a bit longer as you get tired, as the saw slips out of its groove from time to time, and so on. These are only guesstimate, back-of-envelope calculations—but you get the idea: using a chainsaw is certainly several times faster (and probably 5–10 times faster) than using a good handsaw.



The two biggest drawbacks of Saw Chain Sharpener are safety and maintenance. Although chainsaws can be used by any fairly strong adult (after suitable training), they are nevertheless inherently dangerous. (I have the manual for a Stihl MS270 chainsaw open beside me as I write this and it's interesting to note that about 16 of the 64 pages—fully a quarter of the text—is devoted to warnings and safety precautions.) The biggest risk comes from a problem called kickback, where the chain catches on something but the engine keeps turning, so the whole saw flies up and backward toward your head (think action and reaction—Newton's third law of motion), potentially causing fatal injuries. Chainsaw helmets with visors offer some protection; so too do chainsaw uniforms (made from synthetic fibers such as nylon, which snag up the chainsaw teeth and bring the machine quickly to a halt).

The other big problem with Chainsaw Mill is the amount of maintenance they need. A handsaw is delightfully maintenance free: the sawdust you produce simply falls out of the groove you're making. In a chainsaw, the super-fine dust can get caught up in the mechanism and mix with the chain's lubricating oil to make a gungy mess that has to be cleaned out regularly. Again, looking at the manual for the Stihl MS270, it's interesting to see there's a full-page chart spelling out a couple of dozen different checks and maintenance jobs you have to do before starting work each day, or on a weekly, monthly, or annual basis thereafter. So while it's true to saw that chainsaws save you time in the actual chopping of wood, some of that time is, unfortunately, lost in maintenance!

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