A lot of studies have shown that patients with Diabetes, heart disease and leukemia (blood cancer) are greatly susceptible to the fatal effects of Dengue.
Few of the reasons why Dengue can prove fatal in Diabetic patients are listed below:
1. Dengue causes fever and increase in metabolic rate, which can lead to a rise in the fluctuation of blood sugar levels. Frequent fluctuations of sugar levels lead to a condition that puts the diabetic patients at a high risk of developing serious complications like Dengue Shock Syndrome (Condition where the disease develops into a life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, lower platelet counts and leakage of plasma followed by dangerously low blood pressures)
2. Diabetic patients should completely rely on 'insulin therapy' (administering insulin from external sources) rather than oral medication like metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors which may react adversely and cause multi-organ failure. Thus the time taken to recover is greater than that of patients without Diabetes.
3. Urine ketones should regularly be checked for in the patients with type1 and type2 diabetes if the acid levels are up in the body. The medications should be modified accordingly.
4. Lower immunity in Diabetics is another reason why extra care is recommended.
Here's an easy to apply 'Formula of 20' that can be used to identify high-risk patients with Dengue fever:
Rise in pulse by 20
Fall in upper blood pressure by more than 20
Rapid fall in platelets to less than 20,000
Difference between upper and lower blood pressure is less than 20
Start fluid replacement at 20 ml/kg/hour immediately in such patients, and shift to nearest medical center for observation.