Yes, surgery does play an important role in managing endometriosis. Based on the severity, the type of surgery is chosen. A brief explanation is given below.
• Conservative Surgery: This surgery involves inflating the abdominal area with harmless gas, followed by inserting the laparoscope (small instrument to view). This is done through small incisions. The lesions and adhesions are removed either by laser or by intense heat, followed by sealing of blood vessels. The ultimate aim of this surgery is to scrape out the affected tissues without harming the normal ones. This surgery brings in a considerable amount of pain relief. However, the chances of recurrence prevail.
• Complex surgery: When the growth is found in the organs surrounding the uterus, like, bowels and bladder, the complex surgery is preferred. This requires a team of doctors pertaining to the specialties like colorectal, urology, gastroenterology etc. Laparoscopic techniques are used here as well.
• Radical surgery: When medications or hormones or conservative surgery do not tend to cease the growth and adversities of endometriosis, radical surgery is preferred. Usually suggested for woman who is not planning to start a family or have more children, since it involves removal of uterus or ovaries. Radical surgery could be hysterectomy or oophorectomy.
- Hysterectomy: This involves removal of uterus under the administration of general anesthesia. The ovaries could be subjected to removal depending on the presence of endometrial tissues. If the ovaries are left intact, the chances of recurrence of endometriosis exists, since the estrogen is still released. The process is irreversible.
- Oophorectomy: This process involves removal of ovaries. If both the ovaries are removed, it is called bilateral oophorectomy and if only one is removed, it is called unilateral oophorectomy. Since estrogen is no longer released post removal of ovaries, the chances of recurrence are lesser. This process also is irreversible.
The following video shows how a laparoscopy surgery is used to clear extra tissue growth